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Chronic Kidney Disease: Causes & Treatment

Chronic kidney disease, commonly known as chronic kidney failure, is characterized by the progressive loss of renal function. Wastes and excess fluids are removed from your blood by your kidneys, which are then excreted in the urine. Advanced chronic renal disease can lead to dangerously high amounts of fluid, electrolytes, and wastes in the body.

You may have few indications or symptoms in the early stages of chronic renal disease. It’s possible that you won’t realize you have kidney disease until it’s too late.

Chronic renal disease treatment focuses on delaying the progression of kidney damage, usually by addressing the underlying cause. Controlling the cause, however, may not be enough to prevent kidney disease from developing. Without mechanical filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant, chronic kidney disease can proceed to end-stage kidney failure, which is fatal.

What Are Chronic Kidney Disease?

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which your kidneys are damaged and unable to filter blood as effectively as they should. The disease is referred to as “chronic” because the damage to your kidneys occurs gradually over time. Wastes can build up in your body as a result of this injury. Other health issues can arise as a result of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

When your kidneys are damaged, they lose their ability to filter waste and fluid from your blood. This is known as chronic kidney disease (CKD). The accumulation of waste in your body can be harmful to your health. When your kidneys cease performing well enough for you to survive without dialysis or a kidney transplant, you have kidney failure or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

The damage to your kidneys is irrevocable. However, if your doctor detects CKD early on, there are steps you can do to prevent the damage from worsening, such as eating a kidney-friendly diet, being active, and taking specific medications.

Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

The degree of damage to your kidneys and how effectively they still work are used to categorize CKD into five stages. The stages are determined by the results of an eGFR test and how successfully your kidneys filter waste and excess fluid from your blood. 

Kidney disease worsens as the stages progress, and your kidneys become less effective. It is critical to take action to slow the damage to your kidneys at each stage. The damage to your kidneys is minor in stage 1 CKD, and you will likely have no symptoms. Your kidneys have stopped functioning at this stage 5 of CKD (kidney failure).

Your kidneys can still filter waste from your blood in the early stages (Stages 1–3). Your kidneys will have to work harder to filter your blood in the later stages (Stages 4–5) and may eventually quit operating.

At each stage of CKD, the goal is to decrease the progression of kidney damage and keep your kidneys functioning as long as feasible.

What Are The Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease?

If kidney damage proceeds slowly, signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease emerge over time. Kidney failure can result in an accumulation of fluid or waste, as well as electrolyte disturbances. Kidney failure can result in the following symptoms, depending on how serious it is:

  1. Vomiting
  2. Loss of Appetite
  3. Nausea
  4. Sleeping Disorders
  5. Disturbance in Urination (more or less)
  6. Muscle Cramping
  7. Swelling on Feets and Ankles
  8. Weight Loss
  9. Mental Acquity Deteriorated
  10. Itching, Rash & Dry Skin
  11. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
  12. Breathing problems
  13. If fluid builds up around the heart’s lining, it might cause chest pain
  14. Anemia, bone disease, and malnutrition are all possible side effects of CKD.

Kidney disease has a wide range of signs and symptoms. As a result, they can be caused by a variety of disorders. Because your kidneys can compensate for reduced function, signs and symptoms may not appear until permanent damage has occurred.

What Are The Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease?

Our bodies complicated filtration mechanism is carried out by our kidneys. Excess waste and fluid material are removed from the circulation and excreted from the body.

The kidneys are responsible for filtering toxins and waste from a person’s blood. However, issues can arise:

  • If the blood supply to the kidneys is not adequate
  • Unless the kidneys are damaged or diseased and are not operating properly
  • If a blockage inhibits urine from draining

Diabetes or hypertension are the most common causes of Chronic Kidney Disease.

When a person has uncontrolled diabetes, sugar (glucose) builds up in the bloodstream, causing kidney damage.

Meanwhile, high blood pressure can harm the glomeruli. These are kidney components that filter waste materials.

Other possible causes of CKD include:

  1. Kidney disease
  2. Kidney artery stenosis
  3. Heavy metal poisoning
  4. Problems in Fetal Development
  5. Malaria and yellow fever
  6. Certain drugs and medications
  7. Kidney injury

How Diagnosis is done?

A doctor may look for signs of CKD and ask about the person’s symptoms while diagnosing Chronic Kidney Disease. They can also order the tests listed below:

  1. Urine Tests
  2. Kidney Scans
  3. Kidney Biopsy
  4. Chest X-Ray
  5. GFRs Test

What Are the Treatment of Chronic Kidney disease?

Some types of kidney disease can be treated, depending on the reason. Chronic renal disease, on the other hand, is frequently incurable.

Treatment of chronic kidney disease normally entails taking steps to control indications and symptoms, decrease complications, and delay the disease’s course. You may need treatment for end-stage renal disease if your kidneys become badly damaged.

Your doctor will try to delay or stop the progression of your kidney disease by treating the underlying cause. Depending on the cause, different treatment approaches are available. Even if an underlying condition, such as diabetes mellitus or high blood pressure, is under control, kidney damage might increase.

Complications of kidney disease can be managed to make you more comfortable. The following treatments for CKD may be used:

  1. Medication for High Blood Pressure
  2. Medicines to treat Anemia
  3. Drugs and therapies to relieve swelling
  4. Treatment to lower cholesterol levels and to protect your bones

End-stage kidney disease occurs when your kidneys can not keep up with waste and fluid clearance on their own and you develop complete or near-complete kidney failure. You will require dialysis or a kidney transplant at that time.

As a result, the Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment Cost in India starts from USD 386.

Maintaining a healthy blood pressure level requires regular physical activity. It also aids in the management of chronic conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

Individuals should see a physician to see if an exercise regimen is appropriate for their age, weight, and health.


Your doctor may recommend a particular diet as part of your chronic kidney disease treatment to assist support your kidneys and decrease the amount of work they have to do. Request a recommendation to a qualified dietitian who can assess your diet and provide recommendations to make it easier on your kidneys.

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