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Deciphering ICDs and Pacemakers: What Sets Them Apart?

Ever heard of two outstanding medical devices that are employed to tackle heart issues: Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDS)? These lifesavers come into play when you’re darling with a heart condition called arrhythmia, where your heart may march to its own drum, beating too slowly or too rapidly, or with an erratic rhythm which depends on your type.

While these marvels aim to fine-tune your heat’s performance, they are not cut from the same cloth. Discover the unique roles, mechanisms, and scenarios for which each of these is called upon.

What is a Pacemaker And When is it Applied?

A pacemaker is a little gadget inserted into the chest. Electrical signals are sent to start or control a sluggish heartbeat. Most frequently, it is positioned in the chest, just below the collarbone. If the heart’s natural pacemaker (the SA node), results in a sluggish heart rate or rhythm, or if the electrical pathways are blocked, a pacemaker may be utilized. It can identify aberrant heartbeats, such as those that occur too quickly or in an odd pattern. Subsequently, the apparatus emits electrical pulses capable of reinstating a typical cardiac rhythm and heart rate.

If you take certain medications that slow down your heart rate, if your heart beats too slowly or erratically, or if you’ve undergone an ablation operation and need the device to control your heart rhythm, your doctor may recommend a pacemaker.

Biventricular pacemakers are another form of pacemaker. It is utilized for ventricles that do not contract simultaneously. Heart failure may become worse as a result of this. A biventricular pacemaker simultaneously beats both ventricles. The amount of blood the heart pumps as a result rises. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the term used to describe this procedure.

A leadless pacemaker is a more recent form of device that may be utilized in particular circumstances. Using a long, thin tube (catheter) that extends from a vein in the groin, this device is placed inside the heart itself. The heart is not stimulated using leads.

Helpful – ICD Implantation Cost in India

What Are Implantable Cardiopter Defibrillators And When Are They Applied?

A defibrillator is a medical device that administers an electric shock to assist in bringing the heart rate back to normal. In the event that someone experiences a sudden cardiac arrest, they can also be utilized to restart their heartbeat.

Similar to a pacemaker, an implanted pacemaker monitors cardiac activity and acts when it deviates from normal. However, when using a defibrillator, electrical stimulation is given when the heartbeat has become extremely erratic.

If you have a heart ailment that puts your life in danger by causing the ventricles, the lower chambers of the heart, to beat abnormally, your doctor may suggest an ICD. If you have experienced a heart attack, you may also receive an ICD. Once more, an ICD is different from a pacemaker in that the defibrillator reacts more forcefully and in life-threatening circumstances in order to reset the cardiac rhythm.

Reasons for Getting A Pacemaker or An Implantable Cardiopter Defibrillators

The most common reason pacemakers are used is if the heart beats too slowly and If you are in danger of suffering from ventricular arrhythmias, you should consider getting an ICD. Your healthcare provider might recommend the insertion of an ICD or pacemaker for other reasons.

Unpredictable signals may be given out by your heart when an electrical circuit or the natural pacemaker malfunctions. This signal could be excessively erratic (arrhythmia) or overly quick or slow. Heart chamber contraction issues may result from arrhythmias by:

  • Too rapid heart pumping prevents your heart chambers from filling with enough blood.
  • Inadequate blood flow to the body as a result of an excessively sluggish or irregular heartbeat.

Know More – Permanent Pacemaker Implant Cost in India

Parts of An ICD And A Pacemaker

An ICD or pacemaker typically consists of the following basic parts:

  • A sealed lithium battery power source for pulse generators. It either delivers an electrical shock or the electrical signals that cause the heart to beat. The majority of generators have the ability to both receive and react to impulses sent by the heart.
  • A single wire or several leads: Flexible, insulated cables are called leads. Between the heart and the pulse generator, they carry out electrical signal transmission. The electrode end of the lead is inserted into the heart, while the other end is connected to the pulse generator. When a biventricular pacemaker is used, leads are positioned on each ventricle.
  • Electrodes: These are responsible for sensing the heart’s electrical signals and delivering electrical stimulation when needed.
  • Battery: A lithium battery is an essential component in both devices where this battery powers the pulse generator and generally has a lifespan of several years before needing a replacement through a simple surgical procedure.
  • Microprocessor: Both the devices are equipped with a microprocessor that interprets the heart’s electrical signals that responds based on programmed parameters. Furthermore, in a ICDs, it detects and treats life-threatening arrhythmias, while in a pacemakers, it paces the heart when necessary.
  • Programming Interface: Healthcare professionals and specialist can adjust the settings of ICDs and pacemakers using a specialized programming device. Which allows for customization of the devices to meet the patient’s specific needs.
  • Monitoring and Data Storage: Both the devices  have the capability to continuously monitor the heart’s electrical activity and store data on heart rhythms, which can be retrieved during follow-up appointments with the doctor for assessment and adjustment.

Common Indications of The Devices

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators and Pacemakers are medical devices that are used to treat specific cardiac conditions. The decision to implant a pacemaker or an ICD is made by a cardiologist or an electrophysiologist based on the patient’s medical history and the presence of certain heart conditions. Following are some of the common indications for these devices.

Pacemaker Implantations

  • Heart Block: A condition where the electrical signals in the heart’s conduction system are delayed or blocked which causes an irregular heartbeat. 
  • Bradycardia: A slow heart rate which is usually below 60 beats per minute that causes symptoms like dizziness, fainting, fatigue, or shortness of breath. This can result from aging, heart block, and certain medications. 
  • Atrial Fibrillation with Bradycardia: In some cases of martial fibrillation, the heart can become too slow between irregular, rapid heartbeats, requiring a pacemaker to maintain a minimum heart rate. 
  • Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition in which the heart’s natural pacemaker i.e. the sinus node doesn’t work properly, leading to bradycardia or alternating between slow and fast heart rates.
  • Congenital Heart Conditions: Some of the congenital heart defects may require or need pacemaker implantation to regulate the heart rate.

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Implantation:

  • Ventricular Arrhythmias: Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators are usually used for patients who are at high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) where these arrhythmias can lead to sudden cardiac arrest.
  • Prior Cardiac Arrest or VT/VF Episodes: Patients or individuals who have survived a sudden cardiac arrest or have experienced sustained VT/VF episodes can benefit from an ICD to prevent future occurrences.
  • Certain Cardiomyopathies: Individuals with dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) who are at risk of ventricular arrhythmias can be a candidate for ICDs.
  • Certain Genetic Conditions: Inherited conditions such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome, or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may necessitate Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator placement for individuals at increased risk of arrhythmias.
  • Secondary Prevention: In some cases, Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators are implanted as a secondary prevention measure after a non-fatal VT/VF event to prevent future events.

Note: It’s very important to note that the decision to implant a pacemaker or ICD is made after a thorough evaluation of the patient’s medical history, cardiac condition, and their overall health. The choice of device and specific settings are tailored to each patient’s unique needs to ensure the best possible outcome in managing their heart condition.

Reference

 

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