Arteriovenous Malformations Treatment Cost in India
An arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is a tangle of blood vessels connecting arteries and veins that causes blood flow and oxygen circulation to be disrupted. The brain system depends on arteries to transport oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain. The oxygen-depleted blood is returned to the lungs and heart via veins.
The surrounding tissues may not obtain adequate oxygen if an AVM disrupts this critical process. The abnormally twisted blood arteries that make up the AVM can also weaken and rupture. If an AVM ruptures in the brain, it can result in brain hemorrhage, stroke, or brain damage.
The exact causes of Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) are unknown. They are rarely passed down through the generations. A brain AVM can often be successfully treated once it has been discovered, reducing or eliminating the risk of consequences.
Options of treatment for Arteriovenous Malformations are determined by the type, size, and location of the AVM, as well as the risk of AVM rupture, your symptoms, age, and overall health.
What are Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)?
AVMs that grow in your brain tissue or on the surface of your brain are known as brain AVMs. The brain, brainstem, and spinal cord are the most prevalent sites for AVMs. An AVM can affect anyone at any time. They’re mostly found in adults between the ages of 20 and 40. Symptoms are more common between the ages of 40 and 50. AVMs affect both men and women in about equal numbers.
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are aberrant artery-to-vein connections caused by tangles of blood vessels. The majority of them happen in the brain and spinal cord, but they can occur anywhere in your body. Some people get symptoms right away, while others experience symptoms only after an event such as a brain bleed. AVM removal surgery is a curative procedure. Other methods of Arteriovenous Malformations treatment can also be quite effective.
The numbers of individuals with AVMs have no symptoms or difficulties at first. Instead, the issue is identified when doctors are treating another, unrelated medical condition. A rupture of one of the blood arteries in an AVM can sometimes bring the problem to medical notice. AVMs are sometimes discovered only after a person has died, during an autopsy.
What are the types of Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)?
- Gastric Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM): Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be caused by a gastric arteriovenous malformation (AVM). It is, however, potentially lethal and almost usually necessitates surgical intervention. Gastric AVM Endoscopy findings are uncertain, and just a few cases have been recorded.
- Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM): Pulmonary AVMs are aberrant vascular structures that connect a pulmonary artery to a pulmonary vein, bypassing the normal pulmonary capillary bed and resulting in an intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt.
What are the symptoms of Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM)?
If you have an arteriovenous malformation, you may or may not experience symptoms. AVMs are found in up to 15% of persons who have no symptoms. After an AVM bleeds, you may notice it for the first time.
AVM in the brain can induce a blood vessel bleed (rupture), which can result in a stroke and brain damage. A brain bleed (hemorrhage) is the first symptom in almost half of persons with a brain AVM.
The symptoms of an Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM) differ depending on where it is placed. After bleeding, the first signs and symptoms often arise. Aside from bleeding, the following signs and symptoms may occur:
- Neurological function deteriorates over time
- Vomiting and nausea
- Consciousness loss
Other signs and symptoms to look out for include:
- Muscle weakness
- One section of the body is paralyzed.
- Loss of coordination can lead to gait issues
- Problems performing tasks that require planning
- Weakness in the legs and feet
- Parts of your field of vision may be lost, you may lose control of your eye movements, or a portion of your optic nerve may swell.
- Speech or language comprehension difficulties
- Numbness, tingling, or sudden pain are all unusual experiences.
- Dementia or memory loss
If you have any of the signs and symptoms of an AVM, such as headaches, dizziness, vision problems, seizures, or changes in cognitive or neurological function, seek medical help right once. Many AVMs are now discovered by chance, frequently after a CT scan or an MRI is performed for reasons unrelated to the AVM.
AVMs in other parts of the body: If you have AVMs in other areas of the body (not the brain and spine), you may or may not have symptoms, depending on their size and relevance. The following are some examples of general symptoms:
- During physical exercise, you may experience shortness of breath.
- Blood in coughing (if the AVM is in your lungs).
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Stools/poop that is black in color (if the AVM is in your digestive tract).
- Lumps on your arms, legs, or trunk.
- Swelling and pain.
- Muscle weakness or paralysis is a condition in which muscles are weak or paralyzed.
How are Arteriovenous Malformations (AVM) diagnosed?
Your doctor will interview you about your symptoms and perform a physical examination. When an AVM is present, they may listen for a bruit, which is a fast blood flow sound detected in arteries and veins.
The following imaging tests are used for the diagnosis of Arteriovenous Malformations:
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- CT (computed tomography)
- Catheter angiography
For suspected brain AVMs, brain imaging studies may include:
- Cerebral magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
- Computed tomography angiography (CTA)
- Transcranial Doppler ultrasound
Some AVMs are only detected during an imaging examination for another condition (such as traumas, visual problems, or headaches) or after they bleed and create symptoms.
What Are the Treatments for Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs)?
Treatment options are determined by the type, size, and location of the AVM, as well as the risk of AVM rupture, your symptoms, age, and overall health. The goal of treatment is to lessen the risk of bleeding or eliminate it completely. Surgery on the brain and spinal cord is a dangerous procedure that carries a high risk of complications and death. Each person and their AVM are unique, and there are no perfect decision-making tools in every situation. Treatment of an arteriovenous malformation as soon as possible, on the other hand, is usually the best method to avoid major problems.
One or more of the following approaches could be used:
AVM is removed with surgery: A small incision is made near the AVM, the surrounding arteries and veins are sealed to prevent bleeding, and the AVM is surgically removed. The flow of blood is redirected to healthy blood arteries. This problem can be treated with surgery.
Embolization: A catheter is placed into an artery in your groin and transported to the location of the AVM in this treatment. Once within, a glue-like substance, coils, or another substance is released, slowing or stopping blood flow through the AVM. When the AVMs are huge and have a lot of blood flow through them, this method is used. If surgery is performed quickly afterward, they can be removed more simply and with less danger of bleeding. If surgery isn’t done right away, embolization can potentially limit blood flow and reduce rupture.
Radiosurgery with a gamma knife: This method employs highly focused radiation beams to shrink, scar, and dissolve an AVM over the course of a few years, or to make the AVM easier to remove surgically.
Following treatment for an AVM, you may need to see your doctor on a frequent basis. More imaging tests may be required to ensure that the AVM has been resolved and that the abnormality has not recurred. If your AVM is being monitored, you’ll also require regular imaging tests and follow-up consultations with your doctor.
The Most Important Frequently Asked Questions
Q: What is the cause of an AVM?
A: When arteries and veins in a particular location of the body aren’t formed properly, an AVM develops. In a normal situation, arteries transport blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The arteries transport blood containing new oxygen and nutrients to capillaries, which are very small vessels.
Q: Is it possible to cure an AVM?
A: The majority of them happen in the brain and spinal cord, although they can happen everywhere in the body. Some people experience symptoms, whereas others experience symptoms only after an event such as a brain bleed. The AVM can be removed surgically, which is a cure. Other therapies can also be quite effective.
Q: Is AVM causing you to live a shorter life?
A: AVMs are linked to an increased risk of long-term mortality, which can be lowered with aggressive, even partial, therapy. Excess mortality is higher in male patients than in female patients.
Q: Is there a difference between an AVM and an aneurysm?
A: The high-pressure blood flow via the AVM can eventually cause the vessels to expand, leading to an aneurysm, a weakening ballooning of the arterial that can burst and cause hemorrhage (bleeding) into the surrounding brain tissue.
Q: Is it true that AVMs run in families?
A: AVM does not normally run in families, however autosomal dominant inheritance of a genetic mutation, most often hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia or the capillary malformation-AVM syndrome, may account for about 5% of AVMs.